Tuesday, November 23, 1736

Mr. Oglethorpe sailed for England, leaving Mr. Ingham, Mr. Delamotte, and me at Savannah, but with less prospect of preaching to the Indians than we had the first day we set foot in America. Whenever I mentioned it, it was immediately replied, “You cannot leave Savannah without a minister.”

To this indeed my plain answer was, “I know not that I am under any obligation to the contrary. I never promised to stay here one month. I openly declared both before, at, and ever since, my coming hither that I neither would nor could take charge of the English any longer than till I could go among the Indians.” If it was said, “But did not the trustees of Georgia appoint you to be minister of Savannah?” I replied, “They did; but it was not done by my solicitation: it was done without either my desire or knowledge. Therefore, I cannot conceive that appointment to lay me under any obligation of continuing there any longer than till a door is opened to the heathens; and this I expressly declared at the time I consented to accept of that appointment.”

But though I had no other obligation not to leave Savannah now, yet that of love, I could not break through: I could not resist the importunate request of the more serious parishioners, “to watch over their souls yet a little longer, till someone came who might supply my place.” And this I the more willingly did, because the time was not come to preach the gospel of peace to the heathens, all their nations being in a ferment; and Paustoobee and Mingo Mattaw having told me, in terms, in my own house, “Now our enemies are all about us, and we can do nothing but fight; but if the beloved ones should ever give us to be at peace, then we would hear the great Word.”

Letter to Samuel, November 23, 1736

['Those who remember God will remember both the episcopacy and every good work.']

SAVANNAH, November 23, 1736. DEAR BROTHER, -- O pray write, and, if it may be, speak, that they may remember Him again who did run well but are now hindered !

I think the rock on which I had the nearest made ship wreck of the faith was the writings of the Mystics; under which term I comprehend all, and only those, who slight any of the means of grace.

I have drawn up a short scheme of their doctrines, partly from conversations I have had, and letters, and partly from their most approved writers, such as Tauler, Molinos, and the author of Theologia Germanica. [Wesley read the Theologia Germanica and other Mystic books on the advice of William Law. For his judgement as to their influence, see Journal, 'i. 420, and ii. 515 for his estimate of the book; see also letter of May 14, 1738, to Law.] I beg your thoughts upon it as soon as you can conveniently; and that you would give me them as particularly, fully, and strongly as your time will permit. They may be of consequence not only to all this province but to nations of Christians yet unborn.

'All means are not necessary for all men; therefore each person must use such means, and such only, as he finds neces sary for him. But since we can never attain our end by being wedded to the same means; therefore we must not obstinately cleave unto anything, lest it become an hindrance, not an help.

'Observe, farther, when the end is attained, the means cease. Now, all the other things enjoined are means to love; and love is attained by them who are in the inferior way, who are utterly divested of free will, of self-love, and self-activity, and are entered into the passive state. These deified men, in whom the superior will has extinguished the inferior, enjoy such a contemplation as is not only above faith, but above sight, such as is entirely free from images, thoughts, and dis course, and never interrupted by sins of infirmity or voluntary distractions. They have absolutely renounced their reason and understanding, else they could not be guided by a divine light. They seek no clear or particular knowledge of anything; but only an obscure, general knowledge, which is far better. They know it is mercenary to look for a reward from God, and inconsistent with perfect love.

'Having thus attained the end, the means must cease. Hope is swallowed up in love. Sight, or something more than sight, takes place of faith. All particular virtues they possess in the essence, being wholly given up to the divine will, and therefore need not the distinct exercise of them.

They work likewise all good works essentially, not accidentally, and use all outward means only as they are moved thereto; and then to obey superiors or to avoid giving offense, but not as necessary or helpful to them.

'Public prayer, or any forms, they need not; for they pray without ceasing. Sensible devotion in any prayer they despise, it being a great hindrance to perfection. The Scripture they need not read; for it is only His letter with whom they converse face to face. And if they do read it now and then, as for expounders, living or dead, reason, philosophy (which only puffs' up, and vainly tries to bind God by logical definitions and divisions), as for knowledge of tongues, or ancient customs, they need none of them, any more than the Apostles did, for they have the same Spirit. Neither do they need the Lord's supper, for they never cease to remember Christ in the most acceptable manner, any more than fasting, since, by constant temperance, they can keep a continual fast.

'You that are to advise them that have not yet attained perfection, press them to nothing, not to self-denial, constant private prayer, reading the Scriptures, fasting, communi cating. If they love heathen poets, let them take their full swing in them. Speak but little to them in the meantime of eternity. If they are affected at any time with what you say, say no more; let them apply it, not you. You may advise them to some religious books, but stop there; let them use them as they please, and form their own reflections upon them without your intermeddling. If one who was religious falls off, let him alone. Either a man is converted to God or not: if he is not, his own will must guide him, in spite of all you can do; if he is, he is so guided by the Spirit of God as not to need your direction.

'You that are yourselves imperfect, know love is your end, All things else are but means. Choose such means as lead you most to love; those alone are necessary for you. The means that others need are nothing to you: different men are led in different ways. And be sure be not wedded to any means. When anything helps you no longer, lay it aside; for you can never attain your end by cleaving obstinately to the same means: you must be changing them continually. Conversa tion, meditation, forms of prayer, prudential rules, fixed return of public or private prayer, are helps to some; but you must judge for yourself. Perhaps fasting may help you for a time, and perhaps the holy communion. But you will be taught by the Holy Spirit and by experience how soon, how often, and how long it is good for you to take it. Perhaps, too, you may need the Holy Scripture. But if you can renounce yourself without reading, it is better than all the reading in the world. And whenever you do read it, trouble yourself about no helps; the Holy Ghost will lead you into all truth.

'As to doing good, take care of yourself first.' When you are converted, then strengthen your brethren. Beware of (what is incident to all beginners) an eager desire to set others a good example. Beware of earnestness to make others feel what you feel yourself. Let light shine as nothing to you. Beware of a zeal to do great things for God. Be charitable first; then do works of charity; do them when you are not dissipated thereby, or in, danger of losing your soul by pride and vanity. Indeed, till: then you can do no good to men's souls; and without that all done to their bodies is nothing. The command of doing good concerns not you yet. Above all, take care never to dispute about any of these points. Disputing can do no good. Is the man wicked Cast not pearls before swine. Is he imperfect ? He that disputes any advice is not yet ripe for it. Is he good? All good men agree in judgment: they differ only in words, which all are in their own nature ambiguous.'

May God deliver you and yours from all error and all unholiness! My prayers will never, I trust, be wanting you. -- I am, dear brother,

My sister's and your most affectionate Brother.

Pray remember me to Philly. [His brother’s daughter, who married Mr. Earle of Barnstaple.]

Letter to Mr. Verelst, November 10, 1736

SAVANNAH, November 10, 1736.

SIR,--I return you thanks for your favor. The good I have found here has, indeed, been beyond my expectations: the contrary behavior of many was no more than 1 looked for; being convinced, several years before I left England, that in every city or country under heaven the majority of the people are not the wisest or the best part. But we have an advantage here, which is not frequent in other places--that is, a Magis tracy not only regular in their own conduct, but desirous and watchful to suppress as far as in them lies whatever is openly ill in the conduct of others. I am obliged to you for the hint you give as to the regulating that too-prevailing neglect in the case of administering public oaths. Without doubt it should be done with all possible solemnity. For surely no hurry of business can excuse any want of reverence towards the God to whom all our business should be consecrated: since it is for His sake that we ought to undertake everything as wen as perform everything as in His sight.

Pray, when you send me any books, send a letter of advice. I have received no books from you since I came hither. --I am, dear sir,

Your most humble servant.

Letter To James Vernon, September 11, 1736

SAVANNAH, September 11, 1736.

You have a just claim to my repeated acknowledgments not only for continuance of your regard to my mother, but for your strengthening my hands, and encouraging me not to look back from the work wherein I am engaged. I know that if it shall please our Great God to give it His blessing, the god of this world will oppose in vain; and that therefore the whole depends on our approving our hearts before Him, and placing all our confidence in His power and mercy.

Mr. Ingham has made some progress in the Creek language, but a short conversation I had with the chief of the Chickssaws (which my brother I presume has informed you of) moves me to desire rather to learn their language, if God shall give me opportunity.

The generality of that despised and almost unheard-of nation, if one may judge from the accounts given either by their own countrymen or strangers, are not only humble and peace able qualities, scarce to be found among any other of the Indian nations, but have so firm a reliance on Providence, so settled a habit of looking up to a Superior Being in all the occurrences of life, that they appear the most likely of all the Americans to receive and rejoice in the glorious-Gospel of Christ.

What will become of this poor people, a few of whom now see the light and bless God for it, when I am called from among them, I know not. Nor indeed what will become of them while I am here; for the work is too weighty for me. A parish of above two hundred miles in length laughs at the labors of one man.

Savannah alone would give constant employment for five or six to instruct, rebuke and exhort as need requires. Neither durst I advise any single person to take charge of Frederica, or indeed to exercise his Ministry there at all unless he was an experienced soldier of Jesus Christ, that could rejoice in Reproaches, Persecutions, Distresses for Christ's sake. I bless God for what little of them I have met with here, and doubt not but they were sent for my soul's health. My Heart's Desire for this place is, not that it may be a Famous or a Rich, but that it may be a Religious Colony, and then I am sure it cannot fail of the Blessing of God, which includes all real goods, Temporal and Eternal.--I am, sir,

Your much obliged and obedient servant.

To Ann Granville [10]

SAVANAH, September 24, 1736.

The mutual affection, and indeed the many other amiable qualities of those two sisters, [The Misses Bovey, of Savannah. Miss Becky died suddenly on July 10 (see Journal, i. 239-46' 270-80d; C. Wesley's Journal, i. 34). Her sister said: 'All my afflictions are nothing to this. I have lost not only a sister, but a friend. But this is the will of God. I rely on Him, and doubt not but He will support me under it.'] one of whom is lately gone to an happier place, would not have suffered me to be un mindful of your friend and you, had I had nothing else to remind me of you. I am persuaded that heavy affliction will prove the greatest blessing to the survivor which she ever yet received. She is now very cheerful, as well as deeply serious. She sees the folly of placing one's happiness in any creature, and is fully determined to give her whole heart to Him from whom death cannot part her.

I often think how different her way of life is at Savannah from what it was at St. James's; and yet the wise, polite, gay world counts her removal thence a misfortune. I should not be at all grieved if you were fallen into the same misfortune, far removed from the pride of life, and hid in some obscure recess, where you were scarcely seen or heard of, unless by a few plain Christians and by God and His angels.

Mr. Rivington [His London publisher, who had visited the Granvilles at Gloucester.] will send your letter, if you should ever have leisure to favor with a few lines

Your sincere friend and most obedient servant.

Do you still watch and strive and pray that your heart may be fight before God? Can you deny yourself, as well as take up your cross? Adieu!

Letter to George Whitfield, September 10, 1736

SAVANNAH, September 10, 1736.

I had long since begun to visit my parishioners in order from house to house.. But I could not go on two days longer; the sick were increasing so fast as to require all the time I had to spare, from one to five in the afternoon. Nor is even that enough to see them all, as I would do, daily. In Frederica and all the smaller settlements there are above five hundred sheep almost without a shepherd. He that is unjust must be unjust still, Here is none to search out and lay hold on the mollia ternpora fandi, [‘Apt times for speech.’] and to persuade him to save his soul alive.

He that is a babe in Christ may be so still. Here is none to attend the workings of grace upon his spirit, to feed him by degrees with food convenient for him, and gently lead him till he can follow the Lamb whithersoever He goeth. Does any err from the right way? here is none to recall him; he may go on to seek death in the error of his life. Is any wavering? here is none to confirm him. Is any falling ? there is none to lift him up. What a single man can do is neither seen nor felt. Where are ye who are very zealous for the Lord of hosts ? Who will rise up with me against the wicked? who will take God's part against the evil-doers? Whose spirit is moved within him to prepare himself for publishing glad tidings to those on whom the Sun of Righteous ness never yet arose, by laboring first for those his country men who are else without hope as well as without God in the world? Do you ask what you shall have? why, all you desire: food to eat, raiment to put on, a place where to lay your head (such as your Lord had not), and a crown of life that fadeth not away! Do you seek means of building up yourselves in the knowledge and love of God?

I know of no place under heaven where there are more, or perhaps so many, as in this place. Does your heart burn within you to turn many others to righteousness? Behold the whole land, thousands of thousands are before you! I will resign to any of you all or any part of my charge. Choose what seemeth good in your own eyes. Here are within these walls children of all ages and dispositions. Who will bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord, till they are meet to be preachers of righteousness? Here are adults from the farthest parts of Europe and Asia and the inmost kingdoms of Africa; add to these the known and unknown nations of this vast continent, and you will indeed have a great multitude which no man can number.

Letter to General Oglethorpe, August 23, 1736

SAVANNAH, August 23, 1736.

SIR, -- I choose to write rather than speak, that I may not say too much. I find it utterly impossible anything should be kept secret unless both parties are resolved upon it. What fell out yesterday is already known to every family in Frederica; but to many it has been represented in such a light that 'tis easy to know whence the representation comes. Now, sir, what can I do more ? Though I have given my reputation to God, I must not absolutely neglect it. The treatment I have met with was not barely an assault: you know one part of it was felony. I can't see what I can do but desire an open hearing in the face of all my countrymen of this place. If you (to whom I can gladly entrust my life and my all in this land) are excepted against as partial, let a jury be empanelled, and upon a full inquiry determine what such breaches of the law deserve. -- I am, sir,

Your obliged and obedient servant.

From other sources:
From the Sherpa Guide:
Touring Fort Frederica today, one can wander the old streets, view house foundations, and read signs that explain the significance of each site. Still visible is the foundation of the Hawkins-Davison House where John Wesley encountered the wrath of Mrs. Beatre Hawkins, who attacked him with a pistol and a pair of scissors. He made good his escape, but not before she had bit him and torn his shirtsleeve with her teeth.

From : John Wesley: A Biography By Stephen Tomkins

In July, Charles resigned the post, leaving on good terms with Oglethorpe who was happy to make the far more efficient John his secretary and advised Charles to take a wife. Returning to England, Charles wrote to John putting the blame squarely on Hawkins and Welch. The women found out about the contents of the letter, which John further explained to them. Welch treated him to the most scurrilous and profane outburst he had ever heard and Hawkins demanded a home visit. He found her in her bedroom where she attacked him with a pair of scissors and a pistol… While her husband held back the constable and the neighbors, Wesley held her by her wrists and she tore into his cassock until Mr. Hawkins pulled her off.

Note: Image from Georgia's Virtual Vault (
http://content.sos.state.ga.us/u?/postcard,1125) Postcard of the Hawkins-Davison House ruins at Fort Frederica.)

Charles' Journal, Mon., August 16th.

A faint breeze springing up, the pilot, weary of waiting a week to no purpose, said he would venture over the bar, though he feared there was not water enough. Accordingly we attempted it, and had got above half of the two miles between us and the sea, when a violent, squall arose, and drove the ship before it with incredible swiftness. Before it began we were almost becalmed, so that it saved the ship, at least, from being a-ground, though with the immediate hazard both of that and our lives. The sailors were in great consternation, expecting to be stranded every moment. The pilot cursed the ship most heartily, and the hour he set foot in her. Having scraped along the ground for some minutes before, the ship at last stuck. She got clear, and stuck fast a second time; and immediately fell into seven fathom water.

The Mate afterwards told me, it was one thousand to one but she had been lost by the Captain's folly and ignorance, in letting fly the mainsail, while we struck on the bar; which was the surest way to fix her there; as it must have done had we not been on the very edge of it.

Charles' Journal Fri., August 13th.

The wind was still contrary; so that we were forced to lie off the bar, about five miles from Charlestown.

Wed., August 11th, 1736, Charles' Journal

Coming on board our ship, I found the honest Captain had let my cabin to another. My flux and fever that has hung upon me, forced me for some nights past to go into a bed; but now my only bed was a chest, on which I threw myself in my boots, and was not overmuch troubled with sleep till the morning. What was still worse, I then had no asylum to fly to from the Captain; the most beastly man I ever saw; a lewd, drunken, quarrelsome feel; praying, and yet swearing continually. The first sight I had of him was upon the cabin-floor, stark naked, and dead drunk.

Charles' Journal, Thur., August 2d 1736

Mon., August 2d. I had observed much, and heard more, of the cruelty of masters towards their negroes; but now I received an authentic account of some horrid instances thereof. The giving a child a slave of its own age to tyrannize over, to beat and abuse out of sport, was, I myself saw, a common practice. Nor is it strange, being thus trained up in cruelty, they should afterwards arrive at so great perfection in it; that Mr. Star, a gentleman I often met at Mr. Lasserre's, should, as he himself informed L., first nail up a negro by the ears, then order him to be whipped in the severest manner, and then to have scalding water thrown over him, so that the poor creature could not stir for four months after. Another much-applauded punishment is, drawing their slaves' teeth. One Colonel Lynch is universally known to have cut off a poor negro's legs; and to kill several of them every year by his barbarities.

It were endless to recount all the shocking instances of diabolical cruelty which these men (as they call themselves daily practise upon their fellow-creatures; and that on the most trivial occasions. I shall only mention one more, related to me by a Swiss gentleman, Mr. Zouberbuhler, an eye-witness, of Mr. Hill, a dancing-master in Charlestown. He whipped a she-slave so long, that she fell down at his feet for dead. When, by the help of a physician, she was so far recovered as to show signs of life, he repeated the whipping with equal rigour, and concluded with dropping hot sealing-wax upon her flesh. Her crime was overfilling a tea-cup.

These horrid cruelties are the less to be wondered at, because the government itself, in effect, countenances and allows them to kill their slaves, by the ridiculous penalty appointed for it, of about seven pounds sterling, half of which is usually saved by the criminal's informing against himself. This I can look upon as no other than a public act to indemnify murder.

Monday, August 2, 1736

I set out for the Lieutenant Governor’s seat, about thirty miles from Charleston, to deliver Mr. Oglethorpe’s letters. It stands very pleasantly on a little hill with a vale on either side, in one of which is a thick wood; the other is planted with rice and Indian corn. I designed to have gone back by Mr. Skeen’s, who has about fifty Christian negroes. But my horse tiring, I was obliged to return the straight way to Charleston.

I had sent the boat we came in back to Savannah, expecting a passage thither myself in Colonel Bull’s. His not going so soon, I went to Ashley Ferry on Thursday, intending to walk to Port Royal. But Mr. Belinger not only provided me a horse, but rode with me himself ten miles, and sent his son with me to Cumbee Ferry, twenty miles farther; whence, having hired horses and a guide, I came to Beaufort (or Port Royal) the next evening. We took boat in the morning; but, the wind being contrary and very high, did not reach Savannah till Sunday, in the afternoon.

Finding Mr. Oglethorpe was gone, I stayed only a day at Savannah; and leaving Mr. Ingham and Delamotte there, set out on Tuesday morning for Frederica. In walking to Thunderbolt I was in so heavy a shower that all my clothes were as wet as if I had gone through the river. On which occasion I cannot but observe that vulgar error concerning the hurtfulness of the rains and dews of America. I have been thoroughly wet with these rains more than once, yet without any harm at all. And I have lain many nights in the open air and received all the dews that fell; and so, I believe, might anyone, if his constitution was not impaired by the softness of a genteel education.

Charles' Journal, Thur., July 31 1736

July 31st. I arrived with my brother at Chariestown. I lay that night at an inn. Next morning I was much rejoiced at hearing Mr. Appee was still in town, waiting for my company to England. His ingenuous, open temper, and disengagement from the world, made me promise myself a very improving and agreeable voyage: especially as I doubted not but the sudden death of his mistress had taken off that appearance of lightness, which I attributed rather to his youth and education, than any natural inconstancy. After breakfasting with Mr. Eveley, a merchant who had bespoke lodgings for us, I went in quest of my friend. We met with equal satisfaction on both sides: but I did not observe those deep traces of sorrow and seriousness which I expected. I asked him whether his loss had had its due effect, in making his heart more tender, and susceptible of divine impressions. By his answer I concluded his heart was right, and its uppermost desire was to recover the divine image.

Something of this desire I felt myself at the holy sacrament, and found myself encouraged, by an unusual hope of pardon, to strive against sin.

Charles' Journal, Mon., July 26th. 1736

Mon., July 26th. The words which concluded the lesson, and my stay in Georgia, were, "Arise, let us go hence." Accordingly at twelve I took my final leave of Savannah.

When the boat put off I was surprised that I felt no more joy in leaving such a scene of sorrows.

Charles' Journal, Sun., July 25th. 1736

Sun., July 25th. I resigned my Secretary's place, in a letter to Mr. Oglethorpe. After prayers he took me aside, and asked me whether all I had said was not summed up in the line he showed me on my letter :-- Magis apta tuis tua dona relinquo. "Sir, to yourself your slighted gifts I leave, Less fit for me to take, than you to give."

I answered, I desired not to lose his esteem, but could not preserve it with the loss of my soul. He answered, he was satisfied of my regard for him; owned my argument drawn from the heart unanswerable; and yet, said he, "I would desire you not to let the Trustees know your resolution of resigning. There are many hungry fellows ready to catch at the office; and in my absence I cannot put in one of my own choosing. The best I can hope for is an honest Presbyterian, as many of the Trustees are such. Perhaps they may send me a bad man; and how far such a one may influence the traders, and obstruct the reception of the Gospel among the Heathen, you know. I shall be in England before you leave it. Then you may either put in a deputy or resign.

"You need not be detained in London above three days; and only speak to some of my particular friends, (Vernon, Hutchinson, and Towers,) to the Board of Trustees, when called upon, and the Board of Trade.

"On many accounts I should recommend to you marriage, rather than celibacy. You are of a social temper, and would find in a married state the difficulties of working out your salvation exceedingly lessened, and your helps as much increased."

Letter to James Vernon, July 23, 1736

SAVANNAH, July 23, 1736. As short a time as I have for writing, I could not pardon myself if I did not spend some part of it in acknowledging the continuance of your goodness to my mother; which, indeed, neither she nor I can ever lose the sense of.

The behavior of the people of Carolina finds much con versation for this place. I dare not say whether they want honesty or logic most: it is plain a very little of the latter, added to the former, would show how utterly foreign to the point in question all their voluminous defenses are. Here is an Act of the King in Council, passed in pursuance of an Act of Parliament, forbidding unlicensed persons to trade with the Indians in Georgia. Nothing, therefore, can justify them in sending unlicensed traders to the Creek, Cherokee, and Chicasaw Indians, but the proving either that this Act is of no force or that those Indians are not in Georgia. Why, then, are these questions so little considered by them, and others so largely discussed? I fear for a very plain though not a very honest reason -- that is, to puzzle the cause. I sincerely wish you all happiness in time and in eternity, and am, sir, &c.

Letter to Archibald Hutchinson, July 23, 1736

SAVANNAH, July 23, 1736.

By what I have seen during my short stay here, I am convinced that I have long been under a great mistake in thinking no circumstances could make it the duty of a Chris tian priest to do anything else but preach the gospel. On the contrary, I am now satisfied that there is a possible case wherein a part of his time ought to be employed in what less directly conduces to the glory of God and peace and goodwill among men. And such a case, I believe, is that which now occurs; there being several things which cannot so effectually be done without me; and which, though not directly belonging to my ministry, yet are by consequence of the highest concern to the success of it. It is from this conviction that I have taken some pains to inquire into the great controversy now subsisting between Carolina and Georgia, and in examining and weighing the letters wrote and the arguments urged on both sides of the question. And I cannot but think that' the whole affair might be clearly stated in few words. A Charter was passed a few years since, establishing the bounds of this province, and empowering the Trustees therein named to pre pare laws which, when ratified by the King in Council, should be of force within those bounds. The Trustees have prepared a law, which has been so ratified, for the regulation of the Indian trade, requiring that none should trade with the Indians who are within this province till he is licensed as therein specified. Notwithstanding this law, the governing part of Carolina have asserted, both in conversation, in writing, and in the public newspapers, that it is lawful for any one not so licensed to trade with the Creek, Cherokee, or Chicasaw Indians. [See next letter. The Journal (i. 248-50) shows that some Chicasaw Indians were in Savannah for several days, and Wesley had a conference with them.] They have passed an ordinance, not only assert ing the same, but enacting that men and money shall be raised to support such traders; and, in fact, they have themselves licensed and sent up such traders, both to the Creek and Chicasaw Indians.

This is the plain matter of fact. Now, as to matter of right, when twenty more reams of paper have been spent upon it, I cannot but think it must come to this short issue at last: (1) Are the Creeks, Cherokees, and Chicasaws within the bounds of Georgia or no? (2) Is an Act of the King in Council, in pursuance of an Act of Parliament, of any force within these bounds or not? That all other inquiries are absolutely foreign to the question a very little consideration will show. As to the former of these, the Georgian Charter, compared with any map of these parts which I have ever seen, deter mines it. The latter I never heard made a question of but in the neighborhood of Carolina.

Mr. Johnson's brother has been with us some days. [Mr. Johnson is referred to in Journal, i. 250d. His brother had been on board the Simmonds, and com plained that he was inconvenienced by the public prayers in the great cabin. Fortunately he left the ship at Cowes (ibid. i. 114, 124). The father had been Governor of South Carolina.] I have been twice in company with him at Mr. Oglethorpe's; and I hope there are in Carolina, though the present proceeding would almost make one doubt it, many such gentlemen as he seems to be--men of good nature, good manners, and under standing. I hope God will repay you sevenfold for the kind ness you have shown to my poor mother, and in her to, sir, Your most obliged, most obedient servant.

Charles' Journal, Thur., July 22nd 1736

Thur., July 22. To-day I got their licences signed by Mr. Oglethorpe, countersigned them myself, and so entirely washed my hands of the traders.

Charles' Journal, Wed., July 21st 1736

Wed., July 21st. I heard by my brother that I was to set sail in a few days for England.

A Hymn for Reflection

ANOTHER day preserv'd by grace,
We end it with our Saviour's praise,
Symphonious to the quires above,
And triumph in his guardian love:
Ye angels, with your wings outspread,
Come, take your stand around our bed.
We soon shall wake with you to sing,
In presence of our heavenly King;
With you unutterably blest,
Shall always praise and never rest;
But smooth as the melodious lay,
Shall endless ages roll away.
O that the joyful day were come,
Which calls our happy spirits home;
O could we join our friends in light,
And reach our Father's house to. night:
And sweetly close our willing eyes,
To open them in paradise.

From "A Collection of Psalms and Hymns" to be published, God willing in 1737

Charles' Journal, Sat. July 10th 1736

Sat., July 10th. I was waked by the news my brother brought us, of Miss Bovey's sudden death. It called up all my sorrow and envy. "Ah, poor Ophelia!" was continually in my mind, "I thought thou shouldst have been my Hamlet's wife." Mr. Appee was just set out for Charlestown, [on his way to] Holland, intending to return, when he had settled his affairs, and marry her. "But death had quicker wings than love."

The following evening I saw her in her coffin, and soon seen in her grave.

The Burial Grounds at Fort Fredrica. There are few evident graves; only a handful of vaults are left. Charles and John Wesley did many funerals here -- it is just outside of the moat around the town of Fort Fredrica and on the Military road to Fort Saint Simons (which has practically disappeared by now.) The earthen works are still visible at Fredrica, but no standing buildings. There never was a real church in the town. St. James was founded outside of town where Christ Church stands now and the graveyard at Christ Church is where the later burials of Fredrica were done. For years it was just a ghost town -- and it doesn't take tremendous imagination to see the small town at work. The focus of growth moved onto the other end of the island, where the lighthouse and pier are. Fort Fredrica is a quiet place; the only sounds now are the cicadas.

Charles' Journal, Wed., July 7th 1736

Wed., July 7th. Between four and five this morning Mr. Delamotte and I went into the Savannah. We chose this hour for bathing, both for the coolness, and because the alligators were not stirring so soon. We heard them indeed snoring all around us; and one very early riser swam by within a few yards of us. On Friday morning we had hardly left our usual place of swimming, when we saw an alligator in possession of it. Once afterwards Mr. Delamotte was in great danger; for an alligator rose just behind him, and.pursued him to the land, whither he narrowly escaped.

Thursday, July 1, 1736

The Indians had an audience; and another on Saturday, when Chicali, their head man, dined with Mr. Oglethorpe. After dinner, I asked the grey-headed old man what he thought he was made for. He said, “He that is above knows what He made us for. We know nothing. We are in the dark. But white men know much. And yet white men build great houses, as if they were to live forever. But white men cannot live forever. In a little time, white men will be dust as well as I.”

I told him, “If red men will learn the Good Book, they may know as much as white men. But neither we nor you can understand that Book unless we are taught by Him that is above: and He will not teach you unless you avoid what you already know is not good.”

He answered, “I believe that. He will not teach us while our hearts are not white. And our men do what they know is not good: they kill their own children. And our women do what they know is not good: they kill the child before it is born. Therefore He that is above does not send us the Good Book.”

Wednesday, June 30, 1736

I hoped a door was opened for going up immediately to the Choctaws, the least polished, that is, the least corrupted, of all the Indian nations. But upon my informing Mr. Oglethorpe of our design, he objected, not only the danger of being intercepted or killed by the French there; but much more, the inexpediency of leaving Savannah destitute of a minister. These objections I related to our brethren in the evening, who were all of opinion, “We ought not to go yet.”

Charles' Journal, Sat., June 26th. 1736

Mr. Oglethorpe and my brother returned from Frederica.

Monday, June 26, 1736

My brother and I set out for Charleston, in order to his embarking for England; but the wind being contrary, we did not reach Port Royal, forty miles from Savannah, till Wednesday evening. The next morning we left it. But the wind was so high in the afternoon, as we were crossing the neck of St. Helena’s sound, that our oldest sailor cried out, “Now everyone must take care of himself.” I told him, “God will take care for us all.” Almost as soon as the words were spoken, the mast fell. I kept on the edge of the boat, to be clear of her when she sank (which we expected every moment), though with little prospect of swimming ashore against such a wind and sea. But “How is it that thou hadst no faith?” The moment the mast fell, two men caught it and pulled it into the boat; the other three rowed with all their might, and “God gave command to the wind and seas”; so that in an hour we were safe on land.

Tuesday, June 22, 1736

Observing much coldness in M ----‘s behaviour, I asked him the reason of it. He answered, “I like nothing you do. All your sermons are satires upon particular persons, therefore I will never hear you more; and all the people are of my mind; for we won’t hear ourselves abused.

“Besides, they say, they are Protestants. But as for you, they cannot tell what religion you are of. They never heard of such a religion before. They do not know what to make of it. And then your private behaviour: all the quarrels that have been here since you came, have been ‘long of you. Indeed there is neither man nor woman in the town who minds a word you say. And so you may preach long enough; but nobody will come to hear you.”

He was too warm for hearing an answer. So I had nothing to do but to thank him for his openness and walk away.

Charles' Journal, Sun., June 20th. 1736

Walking in the Trustees' garden, I met the Miss Boveys, whom I had never been in company with. I found some inclination to join them; but it was a very short-lived curiosity.

Thursday, June 17, 1736

An officer of a man-of-war, walking just behind us with two or three of his acquaintance, cursed and swore exceedingly; but upon my reproving him, seemed much moved and gave me many thanks.

Charles' Journal, Wed., June 16th. 1736

This and many foregoing days have been mostly spent in drawing up bonds and affidavits, licences and instructions, for the traders; the evenings in writing letters for Mr. Oglethorpe. We seldom parted till midnight. To-night, at half-hour past twelve, he set out in the scout-boat for Frederica. I went to bed at one, and rose again at four; but found no effect this variety of fatigue had upon my body till some time after.

Charles' Journal, Sun., June 6th 1736

I passed good part of this as of every day in conversing with Mr. Appee, who generally breakfasted and supped at our house. The subject of our discourse was my intention of resigning my place, which I resolved to do after my last conference with Mr. Oglethorpe. The giving up my salary and certain hopes of preferment weighed nothing against my resolution. I made Mr. Appee a proffer of them, which he did not accept, being obliged to return, to look after his fortune in Holland.

Charles' Journal, May 25, 1736

Tues., May 25th. I visited a girl of fifteen, who lay dying of an incurable illness. She had been in that condition many months, as her parents, some of the best people of the town, informed me. I started at the sight of a breathing corpse. Never was real corpse half so ghastly.

Her groans and screams alone distinguished her from one. They had no intermission: yet was she perfectly sensible, as appeared by her feebly lifting up her eyes, when I bade her trust in God, and read the prayers for the energumens. We were all in tears. She made signs for me to come again.

Charles' Journal, May 19, 1736

Wed., May 19th. According to our agreement, my brother set forward for Frederica, and I took charge of Savannah in his absence. The hardest duty imposed on me was on expounding the lesson morning and evening to one hundred hearers. I was surprised at my own confidence, and acknowledged it not my own. The day was usually divided between visiting my parishioners, considering the lesson, and conversing with Mr. lngham, Delamotte, and Appee.

Charles' Journal, May 16, 1736

Sun., May 16th. We landed at Skiddoway, and dined at Mrs. M.'s. I then went round, and asked the few people there were upon the island, to come to prayers: which accordingly I read, and preached to about ten in the guardroom; and promised so to contrive, if possible, that they should be supplied once a month.

At four we returned to our boat, and by six reached Thunderbolt; whence I walked the five remaining miles to Savannah. Mr. Inglmm, Mr. Delamotte, and my brother, were surprised at my unexpected visit: but it being late, we each retired to his respective corner of the room, where, without the help of a bed, we slept soundly till morning.

Charles' Journal, May 11, 1736

Tues., May 11th. I had now so far recovered my strength, that I could again expound the lesson. In the lesson next morning was Elisha encompassed with the host at Dothan. It is our privilege, as Christians, to apply those words to ourselves: "There be more than be with us, than those that be against us." God spoke to us yet plainer in the second lesson: "Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves. But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to the councils; ...... and ye shall be brought before Governors and Kings for my sake." "And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake: but he that endureth to the end shall be saved. But when they persecute you in this city, flee ye into another." "The disciple is not above his master." "Fear ye not therefore: for there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed, and hid that shall not be known." (Matt. x. 16--26.) In explaining this, I dwelt on that blessed topic of consolation to the innocent, that however he suffers under a false accusation here, he will shortly be cleared at God's righteous bar, where the accuser and the accused shall meet face to face, and the guilty person acquit him whom he unjustly charged, and take back the wickedness to himself. Poor . W., who was just over against me, could not stand it, but first turned her back, and then retired behind the congregation.

While I waited for Mr. Oglethorpe, setting out again for the southward, Mr. Appee accosted me, a young gentleman, lately come from Savannah. He mentioned his desire of being baptized (having only received lay-baptism before). I thought he ought to have a longer trial of his own sincerity. He passed on to his intended marriage with Miss Bovey, which I dissuaded him from, not thinking either sufficiently prepared for it. He had made little progress in subduing his will, and ought to be more dead to the world before he threw himself into it. Near midnight I took leave of Mr. Oglethorpe, who set out in the scout-boat, after the other boats, for St. George's. The remainder of the night I passed upon the ground in the guard-room.

At four the next day I set out for Savannah, whither the Indian traders were coming down to meet me, and take out licences. I was overjoyed at my deliverance out of this furnace, and not a little ashamed of myself for being so.

Monday, May 10, 1736

I began visiting my parishioners in order, from house to house; for which I set apart the time when they cannot work because of the heat, namely, from twelve till three in the afternoon.

Charles' Journal, May 9, 1736

Sun., May 9th. Notice was given to me that Mr. D., Chaplain to the Independent Company, had landed, and walking toward me. His moral character did not recommend him. I had just time to run away into the woods, and so escaped his visit. The next morning Mr. Oglethorpe returned, from whom I had the following account of his expedition.

On Saturday, May 1st, late at night, arrived the "Caroline" scout-boat, with Captain Ferguson, bringing advice that Major Richards and Mr. Horton (who had carried answers to the Spanish Governor's letters) had landed at their look-out, and he believed were made prisoners by the Spaniards; for they had heard no more of them, except by a blind letter, written with a pencil; that the boats, in which were the men under Captain Hermsdorf, had come about thirty miles on this side of St. George's Point, and there waited for orders; that the men were mutinous, and Hermsdorf believed he should be forced to retire to Fort St. Andrews; that he was apprehensive they would either murder their officers, and turn pirates, or be cut off by the Spaniards. Mr. Oglethorpe, on Sunday, went on board the man-of-war, and proceeded from thence with the man-of-war's boat, commanded by the Lieutenant, and the Georgia scout-boat. They arrived that night at Fort St. Andrews. On Monday they came up with the south point of Cumberland, where we met with the boats under the command of Captain Hermsdorf. Mr. Ogiethorpo immediately took them out to sea with him, round Amelia Island. He found, upon examination, that the men did not intend to mutiny; but that the suspicion was occasioned by the lies of one man, who was hereupon sentenced by Mr. Oglethorpe to run the gauntlet.

He went to Point St. George, within sight of the Spanish look-out, and re-settled them on the same place where Mr. Hermsdorf had before taken up his quarters. It had been agreed that the Spaniards should make a signal; and from thence he would repair with his boats, to fetch Major Richards back, who was gone to Augustine, at the request of the Governor, who promised to send horses to conduct him, but did not. It likewise was agreed that the boats should patrol up and down the rivers, to prevent the Indians, our allies, passing over to molest the Spaniards; as they should prevent their Indians passing over to molest us.

Mr. Oglethorpe went that afternoon to the Spanish lookout, with a flag of truce; but not being able to perceive any one, leaving the boat at her grappling, he leaped ashore himself, to see if he could discover anybody there; and going along the beach, at distance from the Sandy hillocks, to prevent surprise, he surrounded the hillocks, where he found two horses hobbled. He went forward to a palmetto hut; but could find no man. After this he sent the flag of truce into a great savannah, to see if that would draw down any people to a conference. Upon this W. Frazer, a Scotch lad, going into the neighbouring woods, and finding a Spaniard, brought him to Mr. Oglethorpe, to whom he delivered two letters; one from Major Richards, the other from Mr. Horton, directed to Mr. Hermsdorf, acquainting him that he should be back with him in two days' time. Mr. Oglethorpe gave the man a bottle of wine, victuals, and tobacco, and a moidore for his trouble in bringing the letters; and inquired where Major Richards and Mr. Horton were. The man said he knew nothing concerning them; that he was a horseman, and sent by the Colonel of the cavalry from the head-quarters, which were about twelve leagues off, with these letters, to wait there till he should see an English boat appear, and deliver it to them; that he had lain four days on the beach, and had not discovered a boat in that time. Mr. Oglethorpe delivered to him letters for the Governor of Augustine; and between ten and eleven on Thursday morning set out with the man-of-war's boat, and Georgia scout-boat, to meet the man again, according to appointment.

He discovered a guard-coast full of men, that lay behind the sand-bank, beyond the breakers, on the English side of the water; and soon after he discovered several men hid in the woods, next to some sand-hills. Two horsemen showed themselves, and beckoned to the boats, which had a flag of truce flying, to come down to a point, beyond which the guard-coast lay concealed: on which Mr. Oglethorpe rowed with the two boats toward the guard-coast, that he might not leave her behind to intercept us and our people at St. George's Point.

There seemed to be about seventy men on board her, and there were in our boats twenty-four. She lay still for some time; but when they found plainly that they were discovered, they rowed away with incredible swiftness, directly out to sea, toward Augustine.

Mr. Oglethorpe returned to the horsemen, who seemed very unwilling to approach the boat; but at last agreed to receive a letter, if Mr. Oglethorpe would send an unarmed man ashore. One of them, seemingly an officer, forbade the boats to land on the King of Spain's ground. Mr. Oglethorpe answered, that as it was the King of Spain's ground, the English would forbear landing on it, since the Spaniards requested it; but that the Spaniards should be very welcome to land on the King of England's ground, which was on the opposite side of the river, and should be welcome to a glass of wine with him there. He asked him for the news of Mr. Horton and Mr. Richards, and whether he could not send anything to them. The man said he knew nothing of them; that he received his orders from the Colonel of horse, who was quartered at twelve leagues' distance; and that he could carry no news but to him. Upon this Mr. Moore, Lieutenant of the "Hawke" man-of-war, wrote a letter to the Colonel of the horse, acquainting him that he was come thither with boats, to conduct back the gentlemen who were sent by Mr. Oglethorpe to treat with the Governor of Augustine; and that, if at any time he would make three fires on the Spanish main, he would take it as a signal that the gentlemen were come, and would come over with a boat and fetch them. The Spanish officer promised to deliver the letter by night to the Colonel of horse. Mr. Oglethorpe stayed till Saturday night, expecting an answer, and sent over to the Spanish side every day; but could find nobody to have conference with. By the look-out within-land they have a vineyard, flocks of turkeys, cattle, and horses; but great care was taken that none of our people should touch any of them, On Saturday night Mr. Oglethorpe set out, leaving Captain Hermsdorf with an armed periague, the Georgia scout-boat, and another boat.

Charles' Journal, April 30, 1736

Fri., April 30th. I had some farther talk with him in bed. He ordered me whatever he could think I wanted; promised to have me an house built immediately; and was just the same he had formerly been to me.

Charles' Journal, April 29, 1736

Thur., April 29th. About half-hour past eight I went down to the bluff, to see a boat coming up. At nine it arrived with Mr. Oglethorpe. I blessed God for still holding his soul in life. In the evening we took a walk together, and he informed me more particularly of our past danger. Three great ships, and four smaller, had been seen for three weeks together at the mouth of the river; but the wind continuing full against them, [they] were kept from making a descent, till they could stay no longer. I gave him back his ring, and said, "I need not, Sir, and indeed I cannot, tell you how joyfully and thankfully I return this." "When I gave it you," said he," I never expected to receive it again, but thought it would be of service to your brother and you. I had many omens of my death, particularly their bringing me my mourning sword; but God has been pleased to preserve a life which was never valuable to me; and yet, in the continuance of it, I thank God, I can rejoice." "I am now glad of all that has happened here, since without it I could never have had such a proof of your affection as that you gave me, when you looked upon me as the most ungrateful of villains." While I was speaking this, he appeared full of tenderness; and passed on to observe the strangeness of his deliverance, when betrayed on all sides, without human support, and utterly defenceless. He condemned himself for his anger, (God forgive those who made me the object of it!) which he imputed to his want of time for consideration. "I longed, Sir, to see you once more, that I might tell you some things before we finally parted: but then I considered that if you died, you would know them all in a moment." "I know not whether separate spirits regard our little concerns. If they do, it is as men regard the follies of their childhood, or as my late passionateness."

Charles' Journal, April 25, 1736

Easter-day, April 25th. The people were alarmed at night, by the sight of two great fires, on either side of the town, not knowing if they were made by friends or enemies. Next morning news was brought of a boat coming up. Every one seemed under a consternation, though no one but myself was fully apprized of our dangers. At night the watch was doubled by Captain Mackintosh. The people being unwilling to comply with his orders, I was forced to tell Mr. Hird, the constable, that there might be danger which Mackintosh alone knew of, and therefore they ought to obey. He promised it for himself and the rest. Though I expected every hour that the Spaniards would bring us the news of Mr. Oglethorpe's death, yet I was insensible of fear, and careless of the consequence.

But my indifference arose from stupidity rather than faith. There was nothing I cared for in life, and therefore the loss of it appeared a trifle.

Charles' Journal, April 24, 1736 Oglethorpe prepares for death

Easter-eve, April 24th. At ten I was sent for by Mr. Oglethorpe. He began,

"Mr. Wesley, you know what has passed between us. I took some pains to satisfy your brother about the reports concerning me, but in vain. He hereby renews his suspicions in writing. I did desire to convince him, because I had an esteem for him; and he is just so considerable to me as my esteem makes him. I could clear up all, but it matters not. You will soon see the reason of my actions.

"I am now going to death. You will see me no more. Take this ring, and carry it from me to Mr. V. + If there is a friend to be depended upon, he is one. His interest is next to Sir Robert's. Whatever you ask, within his power, he will do for you, your brother, and your family. I have expected death for some days. These letters show that the Spaniards have long been seducing our allies, and intend to cut us off at a blow. I fall by my friends, Gascoin, whom I have made; the Carolina people, whom I depended upon to send their promised succours. But death is to me nothing. T. will pursue all my designs; and to him I recommend them and you."

He then gave me a diamond ring: I took it, and said, "If, as I believe, Postremum fato, quod te alloquor, hoc est,

hear what you will quickly know to be true, as soon as you enter upon the separate state. This ring I shall never make any use of for myself. I have no worldly hopes. I have renounced the world. Life is bitterness to me. I came hither to lay it down.

"You have been deceived, as well as I. I protest my innocence of the crimes I am charged with; and take myself to be now at liberty to tell you what I thought never to have uttered."

When I had finished this relation he seemed entirely changed, full of his old love and confidence in me. After some expressions of kindness, I asked him, "Are you satisfied?" He replied, "Yes, entirely." "Why then; Sir, I desire nothing more upon earth; and care not how soon I follow you." He added, he much desired the conversion of the Heathen, and believed my brother intended for it. "But I believe," said I, "it will never be under your patronage; for then men would account for it without taking in God." He replied, "I believe so too :" then embraced and kissed me with the most cordial affection. I attended him to the scout-boat, where he waited some minutes for his sword. They brought him first, and a second time, a mourning sword. At last they gave him his own, which had been his father's. "With this sword," says he, "I was never yet unsuccessful." "I hope, Sir," said I, "you carry with you a better, even the sword of the Lord, and of Gideon." "I hope so too," he added.

When the boat put off; I ran before into the woods, to see my last of him. Seeing me and two others running after him, he stopped the boat, and asked whether we wanted anything. Captain Mackintosh, left Commander, desired his last orders. I then said," God be with you. Go forth, Christo duce, et auspice Christo!" "You have," says he, "I think, some verses of mine. You therefore see my thoughts of success." His last word to the people was, "God bless you all!" The boat then carried him out of sight. I interceded for him, that God would save him from death, would wash out all his sins, and prepare, before he took, the sacrifice to himself.

Letter to General Oglethorpe, April 20, 1736

SAVANNAH, April 20, 1736.

Savannah never was so dear to me as now. I believe, knowing by whom I send, I may write as well as speak freely. I found so little either of the form or power of' religion at Frederica, that I am sincerely glad I am removed from it. [He was there from April 10 to 17.] Surely never was any place, no, not London itself, freer from one vice; I mean hypocrisy.

O curvae in terris animae, et coelestium inanes! [Persius' Satires, ii. 61: 'O grovelling souls, and void of things divine!']

'Jesus, Master, have mercy upon them!' There is none of those who did run well whom I pity more than Mrs. Hawkins. Her treating me in such a manner would indeed have little affected me, had my own interests only been concerned. I have been used to be betrayed, scorned, and insulted by those I had most labored to serve. But when I reflect on her condition, my heart bleeds for her. Yet with Thee nothing is impossible!

With regard to one who ought to be dearer to me than her, I cannot but say that the more I think of it, the more con vinced I am that no one, without a virtual renouncing of the faith, can abstain from the public as well as the private worship of God. All the prayers usually read morning and evening at Frederica and here, put together, do not last seven minutes. These cannot be termed long prayers; no Christian assembly ever used shorter; neither have they any repetitions in them at all. If I did not speak thus plainly to you, which I fear no one else in England or America will do, I should by no means be worthy to call myself, sir,

Yours, &c.

Letter to Charles, April 20, 1736

SAVANNAH, April 20, 1736.

I still extremely pity poor Mrs. Hawkins; but what can I do more, till God show me who it is that continually exas perates her against me ? Then I may perhaps be of some service to her. There is surely someone who does not play us fair; but I marvel not at the matter. He that is higher than the highest regardeth; and there is that is mightier than they. Yet a little while, and God will declare who is sincere. Tarry thou the Lord's leisure and be strong, and He shall comfort thy heart.

Saturday, April 17, 1736

Not finding as yet any door open for the pursuing our main design, we considered in what manner we might be most useful to the little flock at Savannah. And we agreed 1) to advise the more serious among them to form themselves into a sort of little society, and to meet once or twice a week, in order to reprove, instruct and exhort one another; 2) to select out of these a smaller number for a more intimate union with each other, which might be forwarded, partly by our conversing singly with each and partly by inviting them all together to our house; and this, accordingly, we determined to do every Sunday in the afternoon.

Charles' Journal April 16, 1736

Fri., April 16th. My brother brought me of a resolution which honour and indignation had formed, of starving rather than asking for necessaries. Accordingly I went to Mr. Oglethorpe, in his tent, to ask for some little things I wanted. He sent for me back again, and mid, "Pray, Sir, sit down. I have something to say to you. I hear you have spread several reports about."

The next day my brother and Mr. Delamotte set out in an open boat for Savannah. I preached in the afternoon on, "He that now goeth on his way weeping, and beareth forth good seed, shall doubtless come again with joy, and bring his sheaves with him."

Charles' Journal, April 14, 1736

Wed., April 14th. By a relation which my brother gave me of a late conference he had with her, I was, in spite of all I had seen and heard, half persuaded into a good opinion of M. H. For the lasting honour of our sagacity be it written!

Charles' Journal, April 11, 1736

Sun., April 11th. What words could more support our confidence, than the following, out of the Psalms for the day? --" Be merciful unto me, O God, for man goeth about to devour me. He is daily fighting, and troubling me. Mine enemies are daily in hand to swallow me up; for they be many that fight against me, O thou Most Highest. Nevertheless, though I am sometimes afraid, yet put I my trust in thee. I will put my trust in God, and will not fear what man can do unto me. They daily mistake my words: all that they imagine is to do me evil." (Psalm lvi. 1-,5.) The next Psalm was equally animating :--" Be merciful unto me, O God; for my soul trusteth in thee: and under the shadow of thy wings shall be my refuge, until this tyranny be overpast. I will call upon the most high God; even unto the God that shall perform the cause which I have in hand. He shall send down from heaven, and save me from the reproof of him that would eat me up. God shall send forth his mercy and truth; my soul is among lions. And I lie even among the children of men, that are set on fire: whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword. Set up thyself, O God, above the heavens; and thy glory above all the earth." (Psalm lvii. 1-6.)

I had just recovered strength enough to consecrate at the sacrament: the rest my brother discharged. We then got out of the reach of informers, and proceeded in my account; being fully persuaded of the truth of M. W.'s information against Mr. Oglethorpe, M. H., and herself.

Next morning Mr. Oglethorpe met and carried us to breakfast at the modest M.H.,s. At noon my brother repeated to me his last conference with M. W., in confirmation of all she had ever told me.

At night I took leave of Mr. Horton, Mr. Hermsdorf, and Major Richards, who were going, with thirty men, to build a fort over against the Spanish look-out, twelve leagues from Augustine.

April 10, 1736, Diary of John Wesley

Private prayer; prayed. 6 Breakfast, religious talk. 6.30 Greek Testament; sang. 7 Religious talk with Nowell. 7.45 Greek Testament; religious talk with them; Greek Testament; sang. 10 Shaved. 10.15 Greek Testament; sang. 12 Dinner, religious talk. 12.30 Necessary talk. 1 Storm; religious talk with Delamotte, etc. 2 Wind for us! 3 Dinner. 3.15 Writ diary; necessary business. 4 Meditated; prayed; religious talk with soldier etc. 5 Opened Bible and Kempis; prayed for Oglethorpe, Mrs Hawkins, etc. 5.30 At Frederica; Mr Oglethorpe came on board and received us with the utmost love, saluted Mrs. Hawkins. 6 Religious talk with Charles of Frederica. 7 He read Prayers, expounded; Mrs Hawins there. 7.30 Religious talk with her, she quite cold and reserved (no. 1) 8.30 With Oglethrope, he quite open and friendly [9] Horton came, friendly. 9.30 Storehouse; prayed.

Charles' Journal, April 10, 1736

Sat., April 10th. Mr. Reed waked me with news of Mr. Delamotte and my brother being on their way to Frederies. I found the encouragement I sought in the Scriptures for the day, Psalm liii.: "Why boastest thou thyself in mischief, O mighty man? the goodness of God endureth continually. Thy tongue deviseth mischiefs; like a sharp razor, working deceitfully. Thou lovest evil more than good; and lying than to speak righteousness."

At six Mr. Delamotte and my brother landed, when my strength was so exhausted I could not have read prayers once more. He helped me into the woods; for there was no talking among a people of spies and ruffians; nor even in the woods, unless in an unknown tongue. He told me the scripture he met with at landing was, "If God be for us, who can be against us?" and that Mr. Oglethorpe received him with abundant kindness. I began my account of all that has passed, and continued it till prayers. It were endless to mention all the scriptures which have been for so many days adapted to my circumstances; but I cannot pass by the evening lesson, Heb. xi. I was ashamed of having well-nigh sunk under mine, when I beheld the conflicts of those triumphant sufferers, of whom the world was not worthy.

April 9, 1736, Diary of John Wesley

4.30 Prayed; prayed for Oglethorpe, etc. 6 Breakfast. 6.15 Greek Testament; sand, alterne. 8.15 Read Prayers; religious talke with Mr. Mackay. 9 Read Parnell to him, he fell asleep. 10 Greek Testament; sang. 12 Sang with Delamotte; sang; prayed; meditated; slept. 1 Greek Testament; sang. 3 Dinner. 3.15 Greek Testament; sang. 4/15 Meditated. 5 Prayed; sand; prayed. 6 Greek Testament; sang; prayed. 7 Private prayer. 8 Read Prayers (wind contrary!).

Charles' Journal, April 9, 1736

Fri., April 9th. While talking to Mrs. Hird, I turned my eyes towards the huts, and saw Mr. Lassel's all in a blaze. I walked towards the fires, which, before I could come up to it, had consumed the hut, and everything in it. It was a corner-hut, and the wind providentially blew from the others, or they would have been all destroyed.

April 7, 1736, Diary of John Wesley

5 Prayer; sang. 6 Prayed. 6.15 Bread. 6.45 Read Antoinette Bourignon; sang. 9 On board; Mr. Delegal; ate fish. 10.30 On shore with Delamotte. 11 Read Antoinette Bourigon; religious talk. 2 Rain, flies. 2.15 On board; Antoinette Bourignon; writ diary. 3 Bread; Antoinette Bourignon. 5 Prayed; private prayer. 6 Prayed; sand; prayed for Ingham; Antoinette Bourignon; prayed for Mrs Hawkins. 8 Read Prayers. 8.15 Lay down.

Charles' Journal, April 6, 1736

Tues., April 6th. I found myself so faint and weak, that it was with the utmost difficulty I got through the prayers. Mr. Davison, my good Samaritan, would often call, or send his wife to tend me: and to their care, under God, I owe my life.

Today Mr. Oglethorpe gave away my bedstead from under me, and refused to spare one of the carpenters to mend me up another.

Charles' Journal, April 5, 1736

Mon., April 5th. At one this morning the sand flies forced me to rise, and smoke them out of the hut. The whole town was employed in the same manner. My congregation in the evening consisted of two Presbyterians and a Papist. I went home in great pain, my distemper being much increased with the little duty I could discharge.

Sunday, April 4, 1736

About four in the afternoon I set out for Frederica in a pettiawga—a sort of flat-bottomed barge. The next evening we anchored near Skidoway Island, where the water, at flood, was twelve or fourteen feet deep. I wrapped myself up from head to foot in a large cloak, to keep off the sandflies, and lay down on the quarterdeck. Between one and two I waked under water, being so fast asleep that I did not find where I was till my mouth was full of it. Having left my cloak, I know not how, upon deck, I swam around to the other side of the pettiawga, where a boat was tied, and climbed up by the rope without any hurt, more than wetting my clothes.

Charles' Journal, April 4, 1736

Sun., April 4th. Many of the people had been ill of the bloody flux. I escaped hitherto by my vegetable diet; but now my fever brought it. Notwithstanding this, I was obliged to go abroad, and preach, and administer the sacrament. My sermon on, "Keep innocency, and take heed to the thing that is right, for this shall bring a man peace at the last," was deciphered into a satire against M.H. At night I got an old bedstead to lie on, being that on which the scoutboat-man had died.

Charles' Journal, March 31, 1736

Wed., March 31st. I begin now to be abused and slighted into an opinion of my own considerableness. I could not be more trampled upon, was I a fallen Minister of state. The people have found out that I am in disgrace, and all the cry is, Curramus praecipites, et Dum jacet in ripa calcemus caesaris hostem.

My few well-wishers are afraid to speak to me. Some have turned out of the way to avoid me. Others desired I would not take it ill, if they seemed not to know me when we should meet. The servant that used to wash my linen sent it back unwashed. It was great cause of triumph my being forbidden the use of Mr. Oglethorpe's things, and in effect debarred of most of the conveniences, if not necessaries, of life. I sometimes pitied, and sometimes diverted myself with, the odd expressions of their contempt; but found the benefit of having undergone a much lower degree of obloquy at Oxford.

Charles' Journal, March 30, 1736

Tues., March 30th. Having laid hitherto on the ground, in a corner of Mr. Reed's hut, and hearing some boards were to be disposed of, I attempted in vain to get some of them to lie upon. They were given to all besides. The Minister only of Frederica must be afrhtwr, aqemistos, anestios. Yet are we not hereunto called, astatein, kakopaqein. Even the Son of man had not where to lay his head!

I find the Scripture an inexhaustible fund of comfort. "Is my hand shortened at all, that it cannot save? or have I no power to deliver? I gave my back to the stutters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair. I hid not my face from shame and spitting. For the Lord God will help me, therefore shall I not be confounded. Therefore have I set my face like a flint; and I know that I shall not be ashamed. He is near that justifieth me; who will contend with me? Let us stand together. Who is mine adversary? let him come near to me. Behold, the Lord God will help me: who is he that shall condemn me?"

Charles' Journal April 3, 1736

Sat., April 3rd. Nature I found endeavoured to throw off the disease by excessive sweats: I therefore drank whatever my women brought me.

Tuesday, March 30, 1736

Mr. Ingham, coming from Frederica, brought me letters, pressing me to go thither. The next day Mr. Delamotte and I began to try whether life might not as well be sustained
by one sort as by variety of food. We chose to make the experiment with bread; and were never more vigorous and healthy than while we tasted nothing else.

Charles' Journal, March 29, 1736

Mon., March 29th. I was revived by those words of our Lord: "These things have I spoken unto you, that you should not be offended. They shall put you out of the synagogues: yea, the time cometh, that whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service. And these things will they do unto you, because they have not known the Father, nor me." "In the world ye shall have tribulation: but be of good cheer; I have overcome the world." (John xvi. 1-3, 33.)

Knowing I was to live with Mr. Oglethorpe, I had brought nothing with me from England, except my clothes and books; but this morning, asking a servant for something I wanted, (I think a tea-kettle,) I was told Mr. Oglethorpe had given orders that no one should use any of his things. I answered, that order, I supposed, did not extend to me. "Yes, Sir," says she, "you were excepted by name." Thanks be to God, that it is not yet made capital to give me a morsel of bread.

Charles' Journal, March 28, 1736

Sun., March 28th. I went to the storehouse (our tabernacle at present) to hearken what the Lord God would say concerning me. Both myself and the congregation were struck with the first lesson: Joseph and Potiphar's wife. The second was still more animating: "If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me before it hated you. If ye were of the world, the world would love his own." (John xv. 18, 19.) After the prayers poor Mr. Davison stayed behind, to take his leave of Mr. Ingham. He burst into tears, and said, "One good man is leaving us already. I foresee nothing but desolation. Must my poor children be brought up like these savages?" We endeavoured to comfort him by showing him his calling. At ten Mr. Ingham preached an alarming sermon on the day of judgment, and joined with me in offering up the Christian sacrifice.

In my walk at noon I was full of heaviness; complained to God that I had no friend but Him; and even in Him could now find no comfort. Immediately I received power to pray; then, opening my Bible, read as follows :-- "Hearken unto me, ye that seek the Lord: look unto the rock whence ye are hewn." "Fear ye not the reproach of men, neither be ye afraid of their revilings." "Who art thou, that thou shouldest be afraid of a man that shall die; ...... and hast feared continually every day because of the fury of the oppressor - and where is the fury of the oppressor?" (Isai. li. 1, 2, 12, 13.) After reading this, no wonder that I found myself renewed in confidence.

While Mr. Ingham waited for the boat, I took a turn with Mr. Horton. He fully convinced me of M. H.'s true character; ungrateful in the highest degree, a common prostitute, a complete hypocrite. She told me, her and her husband had begged him upon their knees to intercede with Mr. Oglethorpe, not to turn them out of the ship, which would be their utter ruin. This he accordingly did; though Mr. Oglethorpe at first assured him he had rather give one hundred pounds than take them. The first person she fell upon, after this, was Mr. Horton himself, whom she abused, as she has since done to me. From him I hastened to the water-side, where I found Mr. Ingham just put off. O happy, happy friend! Abiit, erupit, evasit! But woe is me, that I am still constrained to dwell with Meshech! I languished to hear him company, followed him with my eyes till out of sight and then sunk into deeper dejection than I had known before.

Saturday, March 28, 1736

They met to consult concerning the affairs of their Church; Mr. Spangenberg being shortly to go to Pennsylvania, and Bishop Nitschman to return to Germany. After several hours spent in conference and prayer, they proceeded to the election and ordination of a Bishop. The great simplicity, as well as solemnity, of the whole, almost made me forget the seventeen hundred years between, and imagine myself in one of those assemblies there form and state were not; but Paul the tent-maker, or Peter the fisherman, presided; yet with the demonstration of the Spirit and of power.

Saturday, March 27, 2007 -- A Diary of a Day

4 Prayed with Delamotte; private prayer (lively zeal). 5 Meditated; with Germans, sang; read Prayers. 6 Expounded; necessary business in garden. 7 Tea; read Greek with Delamotte. 8 Greek. 9 Sang; Ardnt 10 Ardnt 10.4 Religious talk (necessary) with Appee. 11 Arnt; writ to Charles. 12 [Writ] to Mrs Hawkins. 12.45 Dinner. 1.15 Necessary business. 2 Catechized children. 3 Visited Dean prayer, Common Prayer. 4 With Germans, they meeting. 4.45 At home; necesary talk. 5 Tea, religious talk. 5.30 Read Prayers, expounded. 7.45 Religious talk with Gough. 8 Religious talk on lay-baptism. 8.30 With Germans sang. 9.30 Writ diary.

Charles' Journal, March 27, 1736

Sat., March 27th. This morning we began our Lord's last discourses to his disciples: every word was providentially directed to my comfort, but particularly those: -"Let not your heart be troubled: ye believe in God, believe also in me." "I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you." "Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid." (John xiv. 1, 18, 27.)

I was sensibly concerned this afternoon at hearing that M. W. is growing more and more like M. H., declares she will be no longer priest-ridden, jests upon prayers, and talks in the loose, scandalous dialect of her friend. In the evening a thought came into my mind of sending Mr. Ingham for my brother. He was much averse to leaving me in my trials, but was at last persuaded to go.

Charles' Journal, March 26, 1736

Fri., March 26th. "My soul is always in my hand; therefore will I not forget thy law."

This morning, early, Mr. Oglethorpe called me out to tell me of Mrs. Lawley's miscarriage, by being denied access to the Doctor for bleeding. He seemed very angry, and to charge me with it; saying he should be the tyrant if he passed by such intolerable injuries.

I answered, I knew nothing of the matter, and it was hard it should be imputed to me; that from the first Hermsdorf told the Doctor he might visit whom of his patients he pleased; but the Doctor would not. I denied my having the least hand in the whole business as Hermsdorf himself had declared.

He said, "Hermsdorf himself assured me, what he did, he did by your advice."

I answered, "You must mistake his imperfect English; for many have heard him say the contradictory of this. Yet I must be charged with all the mischief."

"How else can it be," said he, "that there should be no love, no meekness, no true religion among the people, but instead of that, mere formal prayers."

"As to that, I can answer for them, that they have no more of the form of godliness than the power. I have seldom above six at the public service."

"But what would an unbeliever say to your raising these disorders?"

"Why, if I had raised them, he might say there was nothing in religion; but what would that signify to those who had experienced it? They would not say so."

He told me the people were full of dread and confusion; that it was much easier to govern a thousand than sixty men; for in so small a number, every one's passion was considerable; that he does not leave them before they were settled, & I asked him, "Would you have me forbear conferring at all with my parishioners?"

To this I could get no answer, and went on: "The reason why I did not interpose for or against the Doctor was his having, at the beginning, charged me with his confinement. I talked less with my parishioners these five days past, than I had done in any one afternoon before. I shunned appearing in public, lest my advice should be asked, or lest, if I heard others talking, my very silence should be deciphered into advice. But one argument of my innocence I can give, which will even convince you of it. I know my life is in your hands: and you know, that was you to frown upon me, and give the least intimation that it would be agreeable to you, the generality of these wretched people would say or swear anything."

To this he agreed, and owned the case was so with them all. "You see that my safety depends on your single opinion of me. Must I not therefore be mad, if I would in such a situation provoke you by disturbing the public peace? Innocence, I know, is not the least protection; but my sure trust is in God." His company interrupted us, and I left him.

I was no longer careful of the event, after reading those words in the morning lesson: "Thou cannot follow me now; but thou shalt follow me afterwards." (John xiii. 36.) Amen. When Thou pleasest. Thy time is the best.

Mr. Oglethorpe, meeting me in the evening, asked when I had prayers. I said, I waited his pleasure. While the people came slowly, "You see, Sir," said I, "they do not lay too great a stress on forms."

"The reason of that is, because others idolize them."

"I believe few stay away for that reason."

"I don't know that." Mr. Oglethorpe stood over against me, and joined audibly in the prayers. The chapter was designed for me, and I read it with great boldness, as follows: "I charge thee before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom; preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine. For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine."

"But watch thou in all things, endure afflictions, do the work of an Evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry."

"At my first answer no man stood with me, but all men forsook me."

"Notwithstanding the Lord stood with me ...... that by me the preaching might be fully known, and that all the Gentiles might hear: and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion. And the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom: to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen." (2 Tim. iv. 1--3, 5, 16--18.)

Charles' Journal, March 25, 1736

Thur., March 25th. At five I heard the second drum beat for prayer, which I had desired Mr. Ingham to read, being much weakened by my fever. But considering I ought to appear at this time especially, I rose and heard those animating words: "If any man serve me, let him follow me; and where I am, there shall also my servant be: if any man serve me, him will my Father honour. Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say ? Father, save me from this hour: but for this cause came I unto this hour. Father, glorify thy name." (John xii. 26-28.)

At half-hour past seven Mr. Oglethorpe called me out of my hut. I looked up to God, and went. He charged me with mutiny and sedition; with stirring up the people to desert the colony. Accordingly he said they had had a meeting last night, and sent a message to him this morning, desiring leave to go; that their speaker had informed against them, and me the spring of all; that men constantly came to prayers, therefore I must have instigated them; that he should not scruple shooting half-a-dozen of them at once; but that he had, out of kindness, first spoken to me. My answer was, "I desire, Sir, you would have no regard to my brothers, my friends, or the love you had for me, if anything of this is made out against me. I know nothing of their meeting or designs. Of those you have mentioned, not one comes constantly to prayers, or sacrament. I never incited any one to leave the colony. I desire to answer my accuser face to face." He told me, my accuser was Mr. Lawley, whom he would bring, if I would wait here. I added," Mr. Lawley is a man who has declared he knows no reason for keeping fair with any man, but a design to get all he can by him: but there was nothing to be got by the poor Persons."

I asked whether he himself was not assured that there were enough men in Frederica, to say or swear anything against any man that should be in disgrace: whether; if he himself was removed, or succeeded ill, the whole stream of the people would not be turned against him; and even this Lawley, who was of all others the most violent in condemning the prisoners, and justifying the officers. I observed, this was the old cry, "Away with the Christians to the lions ;" mentioned H. and his wife's scandalizing my brother and me, and vowing revenge against us both, threatening me yesterday even in his presence. I asked what redress or satisfaction was due to my character; what good I could do in my present parish, if cut off by their calumnies from ever seeing one half of it. I ended with assuring him, I had and should still make it my business to promote peace among all. I felt no disturbance while speaking, but lifted up my heart to God, and found him present with me.

While Mr. Oglethorpe was fetching Lawley, I thought of our Lord's words, "Ye shall be brought before Governors and Kings for my sake. But when they deliver you up, take no thought how or what ye shall speak: for it shall be given you in that same hour what ye shall speak ;" (Matt. x. 18, 19 ;) and applied to Him for help, and words to make my defence. Before Mr. Oglethorpe returned I called in upon Mr. Ingham, and desired him to pray for me: then walked, and, musing on the event, opened the book on Acts xv. 31-- 83: "Which when they had read, they rejoiced for the consolation; and exhorted the brethren with many words, and confirmed them. And after they had tarried there a space, they were let go in peace." Mr. Ingham coming, I related all that had passed. On sight of Mr. Oglethorpe and Lawley, he retired.

Mr. Oglethorpe observed, the place was too public. I offered to carry him to my usual walk in the woods. On our way God put it into my heart to say, "Show only the least disinclination to find me guilty, and you shall see what a turn it will give to the accusation." He took the hint, and instead of calling upon Lawley to make good his charge, began with the quarrel in general; but did not show himself angry with me, or desirous to find me to blame. Lawley, who appeared full of guilt and fear, upon this dropped his accusation, or shrunk it into my "forcing the people to 'prayers." I replied, that the people themselves would acquit me of that; and as to the officers' quarrel, I appealed to the officers for the truth of my assertion, that I had had no hand at all in it; professed my desire and resolution of promoting peace and obedience: and as to the people, I was persuaded their desire of leaving the colony arose from mistake, not malice.

Here Mr. Oglethorpe spoke of reconciling matters; bade Lawley told the petitioners, he would not so much ask who they were, if they were but quiet for the future. " I hope," added he, "they will be so; and Mr. Wesley here hopes so too." "Yes, Sir," says Lawley, "I really believe it of Mr. Wesley, and had always a very great respect for him." I turned, and said to Mr. Oglethorpe, "Did not I tell you it would be so" He replied to Lawley, "Yes; you had always a very great respect for Mr. Wesley. You told me he was a stirrer up of sedition, and at the bottom of all this disturbance." With this gentle reproof he dismissed him; and I thanked him for having first spoken to me of what I was accused of, begging he would always do so. This he promised, and then I walked with him to M. H.'s door. She came out again to see me with him. He then left me, "and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion."

I went to my hut, where I found Mr. Ingham. He told me this was but the beginning of sorrows. "Not as I will, but as Thou wilt." About noon, in the midst of a violent storm of thunder and lightning, I read the eighteenth Psalm, and found it gloriously suited to my circumstances. I never felt the Scriptures as now. Now I need them, I find them all written for my instruction and comfort. At the same time I feel great joy in the expectation of our Saviour thus coming to judgment, when the secrets of all hearts shall be revealed, and God shall make my innocency as clear as the light, and my just dealing as the noon-day.

At three I walked with Mr. Ingham, and read him the history of this amazing day. We rejoiced together in the protection of God, and through comfort of the Scriptures.

The evening lesson was full of encouragement. "This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come. For men shall be -false accussers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good, traitors, heady, high-minded, but they shall proceed no further : for their folly shall be made manifest unto all men. But thou hast fully known my doctrine, manner of life, what persecutions I endured; but out of them all the Lord delivered me. Yea, and all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution.

But evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving, and being deceived. All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness." (2 Tim.iii. 1-4, 9-13, 16.) Blessed be God, I begin to find it so !

Meeting with Mr. Hird, I persuaded him to use all his interest with the people, to lay aside all thoughts of leaving the colony. He told me he had assured Mr. Oglethorpe that this was always my language toward him and the rest; but was answered short, with, "You must not tell me that; I know better."

After spending an hour at the camp, in singing such Psalms as suited the occasion, I went to bed in the hut, which was thoroughly wet with the day's rain.

Charles' Journal, March 24, 1736

Wed., March 24th. I was enabled to pray earnestly for my enemies, particularly Mr. Oglethorpe, whom I now looked upon as the chief of them. Then I gave myself up entirely to God's disposal, desiring I might not now want power to pray, when I most of all needed it. Mr. Ingham then came, and read the thirty-seventh psalm: a glorious exhortation to patience, and confidence in God, from the different estate of the good and wicked. After breakfast I again betook myself to intercession, particularly for M. W., that Satan, in the shape of that other bad woman, might not stand at her right hand. Doubting whether I should not interpose for the prisoners, I consulted the oracle, and met Jer. xliv. 16, 17: "As for the word which thou hast spoken to us in the name of the Lord, we will not hearken unto it: but we will certainly do whatsoever thing goeth forth out of our own mouth." This determined me not to meddle with them at all.

At eleven, I met M. Perkins, who told me of the infamy M. H. had brought on Mr. Oglethorpe, and the utter discouragement it would be to the people, if she was supported. Farther she informed me that M. W. had began to repent of having engaged so far with her, confessing she had done it through cowardice, as thinking Mr. Oglethorpe would bear her out against all the world.

Soon after I talked with M. W., and with the last degree of astonishment heard her accuse herself. Horror of horrors! Never did I feel such excess of pity. I gave myself up to prayer for her. Mr. Ingham soon joined me. All the prayers expressed a full confidence in God: when notice was given to us of Mr. Oglethorpe's landing. M.H., Mr. Ingham, and myself were sent for. We found him in his tent, with the people round it; Mr. and M.H. within. After a short hearing, the officers were reprimanded, and the prisoners dismissed. At going out M. H. modestly told me, she had something more to say against me, but would take another time. I only answered," You know, Madam, it is impossible for me to fear you." When they were gone, Mr. Oglethorpe said he was convinced, and glad I had had no hand in all this. I told him I had something to impart, of the last importance, when he was at leisure. He took no notice, but read his letters; and I walked away with Mr. Ingham, who was utterly astonished. The issue is just what I expected.

I was struck with those words in the evening lesson: "Thou therefore, my son, be strong in the grace that is in Christ Jesus." "Endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ." "Remember that Jesus Christ was raised from the dead according to my Gospel: wherein I suffer trouble, as an evil-doer, even unto bonds; but the word of God is not bound. Therefore I endure all things for the elect's sakes, that they may also obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory. It is a faithful saying: For if we be dead with him, we shall also live with him: if we suffer, we shall also reign with him." (2 Tim. ii. 1, 3, 8-12.) After reading I could not forbear adding, "I need say nothing. God will shortly apply this."

Glory be to God for my confidence hitherto! O what am I if left to myself! but I can do and suffer all things through Christ strengthening me.

Charles' Journal, March 23, 1736

Tues., March 23rd. In reading Hebrews xi., I felt my faith revive; and I was confident God would either turn aside the trial, or strengthen me to bear it. In the afternoon Mr. Davison informed me that, the Doctor had sent his wife a word to arm herself from the case of instruments, and forcibly make her escape; to speak to Mr. Oglethorpe first, and even to stab any that should oppose her. M. Perkins told me, she had heard M. H. say," Mr. Oglethorpe dares not punish me."

I was encouraged by the lesson: "God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind. Be not thou therefore ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner: but be thou partaker of the afflictions of the Gospel according to the power of God."

"Whereunto I am an appointed Preacher. For which cause I also suffer these things: nevertheless I am not ashamed: for I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day." (2 Tim. i. 7, 8, 11, 12.)

A Letter to Charles, March 22, 1736

SAVANNAH, March 22, 1736.

DEAR BROTHER, -- How different are the ways wherein we are led! Yet, I hope, toward the same end. I have hitherto no opposition at all. All is smooth and fair and promising. Many seem to be awakened. All are full of respect and commendation. We can't see any cloud gathering. But this calm cannot last; storms must come hither too: and let them come, when we are ready to meet them.

'Tis strange so many of our friends should still trust in God. I hope, indeed, whoever turns to the world, Mr. Tackner and Betty, with Mr. Hird's family and Mr. Burk, will zealously aim at the prize of their high calling. These especially I exhort, by the mercies of God, that they be not weary of well-doing, but that they labor more and more to be meek and lowly, and daily to advance in the knowledge and love of God.

I hope, too, Mr. Weston, Mr. Moore, Mr. Allen, and Mr. White, as well as Mr. Ward and his wife, continue in the same wise resolutions. I must not forget Mr. Reed and Mr. Daubry, both of whom I left fully determined to shake off every weight, and with all their might to pursue the one thing needful.

Conciones omnes meas jamnunc habes, praeter istas quas misi. Aliquae in pyxide sunt (de qua ne verbum scribis) una cum Bibliis in quarto. Liber de Disciplina quam celerrime potes, remittendus est. Quanta est concordia fratrum! Tui vole et fratris Bi. [‘You have now all my sermons, beside those which I have sent. Some are in the box (of which you write not a word) together with the Bible in quarto. The Book of Discipline must be sent back as soon as possible. How great is the concord of brethren! I mean of thee and brother B’ (Ben jamin Ingham).]

You are not, I think, at liberty [greek inserted here that translated is: [' To turn to the Gentiles till your own countrymen shall cast you out.'] ]If that period comes soon, so much the better. Only in the meanwhile reprove and exhort with all authority, even though all men should despise thee. It shall turn to thee for a testimony ': see Luke xxi. 13.

I conjure you, spare no time or address or pains to learn the true cause ['Of the former distress of my friend.'] I much doubt you are the right. ['God forbid that she should again in like manner miss the mark. Watch over her, keep her as much as possible. Write to me, how I ought to write to her.']

If Mr. Ingham [Benjamin Ingham had gone to Prederica with General Oglethorpe on Feb. 16, and welcomed Charles on his landing there in March.] were here, I would try to see you. But omit no opportunity. of writing. ['I stand in jeopardy every hour. Two or three are women, younger, refined, God-fearing. Pray that I know none of them after the flesh.']

Let us be strong and very courageous; for the Lord our God is with us, and there is no counsel or might against Him Adieu!

*Charles Wesley reached Frederica, the chief place on St. Sireoh's Island, a hundred miles south of Savannah, on March 9. (For a description of the place, see Journal, i. 403n.) He was General Oglethorpe's secretary, and had spiritual charge of the settlers, who were busy laying out the town and building houses. This letter shows with what care the Wesleys watched over all their parishioners. The persons named in it had come out with them on the Simmonds. Wesley baptized Ambrosius Tackher, aged thirty, who had been baptized by a layman. Charles Wesley found him in an 'excellent temper' at Frederies (C. Wesley's Journal, i. 3). Betty was his wife (Journal, i. 123d). Wesley also baptized on the voyage Thomas and Grace Hird, with their son Mark, who was twenty-one, and their daughter Phoebe, about seventeen. The young people had been educated among the Quakers (ibid. i. 117). Burk was one of the converts on the Sirnrnonds (i. 233d). Francis Moore's letters about the voyage were afterwards pub lished. His wife was one of Oglethorpe's servants (i. I25). Mr. Reed was a courageous friend, who had done good work as a lay pastor (i. 125d). Charles Wesley slept on the ground in a common hut at Frederica (i. 195d). Mrs. Welch had been meek and teachable on board the Simrnonds; but Charles Wesley says she was now ' so willful, so un-tractable, so fierce, that I could not bear to stay near her.'

This letter is given in Whitehead's Wesley, ii. 14-16, and Moore's Wesley, i. 293-4; but both omit the last two sentences in Greek, through which already looms the ominous figure of Sophia Hopkey, whom Wesley first met on March 13. Charles Wesley was beset with difficulties at Frederica, and General Oglethorpe was unfriendly. (See Telford's Charles Wesley, p. 49.) The correspondence between the brothers was liable to be opened and read. Hence the Latin and Greek interspersed. Later Byrom's shorthand was used. Charles sent Benjamin Ingham to Savannah on March 28, and early in April Wesley was able to visit his brother.